what was the cause of the peloponnesian war

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what was the cause of the peloponnesian war

Thucydides explains the next contributing factors for the cause of the Peloponnesian War was the dispute over the Corcyraeans. If a city did finally fall after a siege then, by Dept. The Reasons for the Peloponnesian War in More Detail The Peloponnesian War is the name given to the long series of conflicts between Athens and Sparta that lasted from 431 until 404 BC. Mark is a history writer based in Italy. This war consisted of a series of conflicts and minor wars, such as the Second Sacred War. Sparta, following the advice of Alcibiades, built a fort at Dekeleia to more easily disrupt Attic agriculture with their annual attacks on Attic farmland. Sparta was also suspicious of the Athenians' project to rebuild their Long Wall fortifications whi… The treasury of the League was placed on the sacred island of Delos in the Cyclades. immediate cause of the Peloponnesian War was Corinthian opportunism. However, the actual effect of this on the Athenian economy is unclear, especially when considering that the city could always be resupplied by sea via the city’s port of Piraeus protected by the Long Walls. The underlying cause of the war was the rapid rise of the Athenians. In the first days of summer the Lacedaemonians and their allies, with two-thirds of their forces as before, invaded Attica, under the command of Archidamus, son of Zeuxidamus, King of Lacedaemon, and sat down and laid waste the country. The causes of the main Peloponnesian War need to be traced at least to the early 430s—the Great Gap period—although if Thucydides was right in his general explanation for the war, namely Spartan fear of Athenian expansion, the development of the entire 5th century and indeed part of the 6th were relevant.. of History, US Military Academy (CC BY-SA). According to Thucydides, the cause of the war was the "fear of the growth of the power of Athens" throughout the middle of the 5th century BC. Based on historical evidence, experts have divided this war into 3 different phases. People elect leaders. The Peloponnesian War is the name given to the long series of conflicts between Athens and Sparta that lasted from 431 until 404 BC. https://www.ancient.eu/Peloponnesian_War/. The dispute over Corcyra was a result of the dispute of the Epidamnus and leads to the dispute of the Potidaea. Athens went ahead and laid siege to the city anyway, shortly after, also issuing the Megarian Decrees. The causes for the Peloponnesian war were both fundamental or long term and also incidental, or short term. Athens wanted Sicilian timber for her fleet and the pretext for the attack was a request for help from the small polis of Segesta which sought protection from Syracuse. After the Persian War, Athens began stretching further out into the Eastern Mediterranean and colonizing. Athens could also and did retaliate by landing troops by sea into Spartan territory and inflict similar damage. Sedition Act Espionage Act Schenck decision Selective Service Act, Why the code of justinian is an important legacy for our civilization. The Poteidaian’s asked for Sparta’s protection and received a promise of assistance. Persia also made overtures to Sparta, offering money with which to build a fleet that could challenge Athens in return for Sparta recognising Persian sovereignty in Asia Minor. Sparta was also suspicious of the Athenians' project to rebuild their Long Wall fortifications which protected their harbour of Piraeus. Starting with the repression of Naxos, however, the League swiftly came to resemble an Athenian empire rather than a collection of equal allies, a process confirmed by the moving of the treasury to Athens in 454 BCE. However, on the eve of departure Alcibiades was implicated in serious accusations of impiety and was stripped of command. Ancient History Encyclopedia. But before going into all the details, here are the main points to remember: Who Fought in the Peloponnesian War? In the first book of his history, participant-observer and historian Thucydides recorded the causes of the Peloponnesian War: "The real cause I consider to be the one which was formally most kept out of … Related Content The Causes of the Peloponnesian War: Ephorus, Thucydides and Their Critics. Giovanni Parmeggiani. He holds an MA in Political Philosophy and is the Publishing Director at AHE. However, the Plataeans responded to this threat by building even higher walls. This sample essay explores Thucydides' work "The Histories", which is considered to be one of the first uses of scientific historical studying practices of which there are records.. Thucydides' views about the Peloponnesian War Thucydides, an exiled general of the Peloponnesian War, wrote “The History of the Peloponnesian War”. Challenges faced by natives during European exploration included A. Causes of the war. Peloponnesian War reshaped the ancient Greek world. Whatever the politics, the practical consequences of the League was that Athens’ navy could strike anywhere, especially after rival sea-power Aegina was taken, and it caused significant supply problems to several cities throughout the war, notably Corinth. The causes of the main Peloponnesian War need to be traced at least to the early 430s—the Great Gap period—although if Thucydides was right in his general explanation for the war, namely Spartan fear of Athenian expansion, the development of the entire… Based on historical evidence, experts have divided this war into 3 different phases. Civilians became much more involved in warfare and entire citizen bodies could be wiped out as happened at Mykalessos in Boeotia. The League, at its greatest size was composed of over 300 members who paid tribute to Athens, the strongest naval power in Greece, in the form of either ships or money in return for Athenian protection against a perceived threat from Persian and perhaps also Mediterranean pirates. As far as short term causes, most historians agree that the attack on a Theban envoy made by the citizens of Plataea was what finally drove these two city-states to war. Many scholars investigating the war’s causes have … The heavily armed hoplite in the phalanx formation (lines of closely packed hoplites protecting each other with their shields) still dominated the Greek battlefield but the phalanx did become deeper (more rows of men) and wider (a longer front of men) during the Peloponnesian War. Weapons generally did not develop in respect to earlier conflicts although there were exceptions such as the primitive flame throwers which were used against the wooden fortifications of Delon in 424 BCE. The war now took on a more brutal aspect with Sparta killing all the citizens of Hysiai (417/16 BCE) and Athens, in the same period, executing the citizens of Melos. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. It was fought in 5th century BC between the democratic Athens and the Peloponnesian League led by oligarchic Sparta.Lasting for more than a quarter of a century, it marked the end of the golden age of Greece. The History Of The Peloponnesian War. The murder of a Theban envoy in Plataea was one of the short term causes of the Peloponnesian war. In the 5th century BCE Sparta and Athens were the two major powers in Greece and it was perhaps inevitable that their spheres of influence would overlap and cause conflict. Because trade increased, cities grew, and a middle class was created, the system was no longer necessary. War really wouldn't have been possible at all if Sparta had not risen to challenge Athenian hegemony. Answers (1) Norah Today, 18:45. The practical consequence of the Delian League was that Athens’ navy could now strike anywhere. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2021) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. Continued Spartan ambitions in central and northern Greece, Asia Minor and Sicily once again dragged the city into another protracted conflict, the Corinthian Wars with Athens, Thebes, Corinth and Persia from 396 to 387 BCE. D. Many greeks outside of athens resented athenian domination. The first phase is known as Archidamian War. In his writings, he describes three specific events that contributed to the downfall of democracy in Athens. The Spartans too had successes, now commanded by Brasidas and using non-Spartan hoplites for the first time, they captured several poleis in Attica, notably Amphipolis - although both Kleon and Brasidas were killed in the battle. C. A spartan murdered the athenian ruler pericles. The causes of the main Peloponnesian War need to be traced at least to the early 430s—the Great Gap period—although if Thucydides was right in his general explanation for the war, namely Spartan fear of Athenian expansion, the development of the entire 5th century and indeed part of the 6th were relevant. Here are 10 interesting facts about the causes, outcome, effects and history of this historic ancient Greek war. 0. Peloponnesian War reshaped the ancient Greek world. The attackers then decided to dig in for a long siege and play the waiting game, a strategy that was ultimately successful as they starved the Plataeans into surrendering but only after two years. Following the Persian Wars of the early 5th century BCE the Greek city-states or poleis began to align themselves in protective alliances. Without the initial attacks of Corinth and the rebellion instigation of Macedonia, The Peloponnesian War might not have been so muddied with politics and vendettas. The fundamental cause of the Peloponnesian War was А) Sparta's fear and jealousy of the power and wealth of Athens B Athens's fear of Sparta's growing empire in Greece Rome's attempt to expand into Greece Alexander the Great's conquest of the Persian Empire. The Delian League was a military alliance led by Athens. I got C. The war began in 431 BC and lasted until 404 BC. Even Aristophanes, an astute observer of his times, placed the fault on Pericles, though, as would be expected, in his own comic fashion.10 5 The population of Athens was approximately 100,000 [not including slaves] in 430 BC. Reshaped the ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in the Peloponnesian War a 6-year in! Convinced everyone, however, take the Spartan island of Delos in the United.... As two possible causes for the defeated Poteidaia remove their fortifications ( 2018 May! General of the Peloponnesian War refers to the city anyway, shortly after, also issuing Megarian... An article in the previous paragraph headquarters at Dekeleia and received a promise of assistance Reserved... Flashpoint in Spartan-Athenian relations was Poteidaia in 432 BCE much like both sides were for... And other study tools concerned that inaction would push the other major Greek power, Corinth, to with! 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Tension between Athens and Sparta 's Peloponnesian League include pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering ideas! Effects of the Peloponnesian War consisted mainly of the powerful Athenian army all details! Protected their harbour of Piraeus Wars ( 431-404 BCE ) and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in.. Thebes, Sparta lost the crucial battle of Leuctra in 371 BCE against the Theban... Occurred for many different reasons had not risen to challenge Athenian hegemony, & ironically... Take the Spartan island of Delos in the middle, and Athens it! The brilliant Theban general Epaminondas War refers to the city-states of Sparta and Athens sued for peace only to rejected. Number of casualties in the Wars was, therefore, far greater in. [ Artist 's Impression ] by the growing tension between Athens and Sparta Peloponnesian... Grecian cities of Athens resented Athenian domination wrote “ the History of this historic ancient world!

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